The prominence of a peak is the minimum height of climb to the summit on any route from a higher peak, or from sea level if there is no higher peak. The lowest point on that route is the col.
The table lists the Earth's 125 most topographically prominent summits. Of these, China has the most: 16. Close behind it are Indonesia, with 13, and the United States with 12.
Source: Peakbagger, Wikipedia